Search
Thursday 21 December 2017
  • :
  • :

Labour Party dominating Twitter discussions.

labour

Content about Labour is dominating Twitter in the run-up to the general election, according to a new study from the University of Oxford’s Internet Institute.

The researchers, who have been tracking the changes in activity over time, looked at traffic on Twitter over the final week of May to identify trends around political engagement, ultimately cataloguing almost 2.5m tweets spread over a number of election-related hashtags.

They found that the number of posts using Labour-related hashtags dwarfed those featuring content about other parties, ultimately making up 62% of all tweets mentioning a specific party. This was up from 40% at the start of the month. Labour support spiked highest during the debate programmes that occurred during that week: the back-to-back Q&A with May and Corbyn on 28 May, the general election debate on 31 May that the Prime Minister declined to attend, and Question Time on 2 June featuring the two leaders.

The number of tweets on hashtags about each of the major parties over the final full week of the general election.
The number of tweets on hashtags about each of the major parties over the final full week of the general election. Photograph: Oxford Internet Institute

But the amount of “high-frequency tweeting” also increased in the same period, with more than 100,000 tweets sent from accounts that posted more than 50 times a day on just one party-specific hashtag. Such rapid rates of posting on such a narrow stream of tweets indicates automation, the authors say, although it may simply be a case of a user manually attempting to flood the service with their comments.

The new report follows on from a research memo that looked at traffic in the first week of May and found that Labour dominated the conversation on Twitter, in part due to almost 200 seemingly automated accounts sending over 20,000 tweets between them.

That memo, first reported by the Guardian, led to some papers claiming that Labour’s election campaign was “boosted by fake twitter accounts”. But in the new report the Oxford team points out that Labour and Conservative hashtags saw similar proportions of automation – and that many accounts were active on both at once.

“There was a large overlap between accounts that tweeted using Labour-related hashtags and accounts that tweeted using Conservative-related hashtags,” the authors write. “In total our analysis showed that 522 highly automated accounts were active using both Labour-related hashtags and Conservative-related hashtags.”

The researchers also found that the proportion of quality news articles shared on Twitter has steadily grown as the election has continued. While the first week of May saw professional news sources amount for 43% of links to content, that figure has risen to 49%, mostly at the expense of links to other social media platforms. The proportion of links that go to “junk news” – misleading, deceptive or incorrect information purporting to be real news – has also decreased slightly from 12.6% to 11.4%.

The researchers also looked at page views on Wikipedia for articles about the two party leaders, and found that the page about Jeremy Corbyn has been slowly gaining more readers than the page about Theresa May. “In the first week of campaigning many more people looked up Theresa May than looked up Jeremy Corbyn, and the readership for pages about the Labour and Conservative parties was about the same size,” the researchers say. However, “in the final week of campaigning the Wikipedia entries on Jeremy Corbyn and the Labour Party were receiving the most page views.”

They argue that the volume of search queries and the traffic to articles on Wikipedia are good predictors of voters’ behaviour, particularly swing voters.

 




8 thoughts on “Labour Party dominating Twitter discussions.

  1. inetryconydot

    GET ADOXA CANADA ORDER! EXPRESS AIRMAIL/FEDEX

    BUY ADOXA (DOXYCYCLINE) RIGHT NOW – ENTER HERE!

    HIGH QUALITY DRUGS WITH BEST PRICE!
    FDA APPROVED! NO PRESCRIPTION IS REQUIRED!
    FAST WORLDWIDE SHIPPING!
    LIVE CHAT SUPPORT HERE 24/7
    DISCOUNT! FREE GIFTS!
    WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTERCARD, AMEX

    CHEAPEST PRICE TO BUY ADOXA ONLINE!

    BUY ADOXA (DOXYCYCLINE) NO PRESCRIPTION – BEST ONLINE PHARMACY IN THE USA!

    ORDER ORIGINAL CHEAPEST ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN SYDNEY
    YOUR PARTNER FOR MEDICAL PRODUCTS PURCHASE ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN AKRON
    CHEAP ONLINE ADOXA ADOXA IN LOS ANGELES
    BUY GENUINE CHEAPEST ADOXA SALE ADOXA IN MARYLAND
    BUY ADOXA ONLINE CHEAP SALE ADOXA IN NEW YORK
    ORDER ADOXA IN FORT WORTH BUY ADOXA NO PRESCRIPTION REQUIRED
    Order Antibiotics Cheap
    DISCOUNT BUY ADOXA ONLINE BUY ADOXA PILLS NO PRESCRIPTION
    LOWEST PRICE HOW TO BUY BUY ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN ANCHORAGE
    ADOXA USE ORDER NOW
    AT DISCOUNTED PRICES ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN MINNEAPOLIS
    ADOXA FOR SALE PAYPAL CHEAP ADOXA BUY IN US
    DRUGSTORE!BUY CHEAP ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN PEORIA
    ORDER ONLINE ADOXA TODAY REAL BUY CHEAP ADOXA ONLINE
    Buy Cheap Prednisone
    BUY CHEAP BEST PRICES!SALE ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN LONDON
    ADOXA BUY SALE ORDER ADOXA IN OAKLAND
    CHEAPEST PLACE TO BUY ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN UK
    CHEAP ADOXA PILL PURCHASE BUY ADOXA GENERIC
    COD BUY BRAND BUY ADOXA SALE ADOXA IN NORTH DAKOTA
    PURCHASE ADOXA SALE ADOXA IN NEW YORK
    ORDER ADOXA IN LOS ANGELES ORDER ADOXA ONLINE BUY CHEAP
    BUY CHEAP ADOXA ONLINE NO PRESCRIPT ION SALE ADOXA IN NEW ORLEANS
    Cheap Brand Viagra 100 mg get free delivery
    DISCOUNT BUY ADOXA ONLINE
    OVERNIGHT SHIPPING ADOXA BUY ADOXA IN MICHIGAN
    TABLETS FOR SALE >>> BUY CHEAP ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN USA & UK & SVERIGE
    Lowest price on Diflucan. 24hr/7 Days Customer support
    OVERSEAS PURCHASE CHEAP ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN LAREDO
    DISCOUNT PRICE ORDER BUY ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN LEEDS
    DISCOUNTED ADOXA BEST PRICES PURCHASE ADOXA IN LOS ANGELES
    BUYING ONLINE BUY ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN KANSAS
    Cheap Gabapentin No Prescription USA. Where to Buy Gabapentin with discount
    BUY COST FOR CHEAP GENERIC ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN NEW HAMPSHIRE
    BEST BUY MEDIKAMENT PURCHASE ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN VIRGINIA
    BUY CHEAP ADOXA IN OTTAWA CHEAP ADOXA PILL SHOP
    PURCHASE ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN MONTREAL
    ORDER BUY CHEAP ONLINE BUY ADOXA SALE ADOXA IN USA
    TAKE ADOXA CHEAP PILLS CHEAP ADOXA NO PRESCRIPTION NEXT DAY DELIVERY
    ORDER ONLINE ADOXA TODAY BUY ADOXA ONLINE CHEAP
    BUY CHEAPEST ONLINE ADOXA SALE ADOXA IN LONDON
    HOW TO BUY BUY ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN KITCHENER
    ADOXA IN SAN JOSE
    BUY ADOXA ISRAEL ONLINE PHARMACY ADOXA OVERNIGHT
    WHERE TO BUY ONLINE ADOXA SALE ADOXA IN KALIFORNIEN
    ORDER ADOXA ONLINE BUY CHEAP DISCOUNT BUY ADOXA ONLINE
    BUY CHEAPEST ONLINE ADOXA SALE ADOXA IN LONDON
    BEST BUY MEDIKAMENT PURCHASE ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN US
    Buy Ranitidine Overnight Delivery No Rx

    Safety information
    BUY COST FOR CHEAP GENERIC ADOXA SALE ADOXA IN BRISTOL
    PURCHASE GENUINE CHEAPEST ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN LAS VEGAS
    WHERE TO BUY CHEAPEST ADOXA TAKE ADOXA IN USA
    BUY ADOXA ON LINE
    ADOXA BUY SALE
    LOWEST U.S. PRICE SALE BUY ADOXA SALE ADOXA IN CONNECTICUT
    BUY CHEAP ADOXA PRESCRIPTION ONLINE

    Reply
  2. ATraissews

    This condition is pretty limited by the reproductive system and can have several causes including a result of injury or abnormal the flow of blood inside the testicles. Use these circumspectly however, as they may lower glucose levels, which can be an unsatisfactory effect in males whose glucose levels are properly balanced.

    Reply
  3. Williambutty

    First, let’s get a little historical perspective on American health care. This is not intended to be an exhausted look into that history but it will give us an appreciation of how the health care system and our expectations for it developed. What drove costs higher and higher?

    To begin, let’s turn to the American civil war. In that war, dated tactics and the carnage inflicted by modern weapons of the era combined to cause ghastly results. Not generally known is that most of the deaths on both sides of that war were not the result of actual combat but to what happened after a battlefield wound was inflicted. To begin with, evacuation of the wounded moved at a snail’s pace and this caused severe delays in treating the wounded. Secondly, many wounds were subjected to wound care, related surgeries and/or amputations of the affected limbs and this often resulted in the onset of massive infection. So you might survive a battle wound only to die at the hands of medical care providers who although well-intentioned, their interventions were often quite lethal. High death tolls can also be ascribed to everyday sicknesses and diseases in a time when no antibiotics existed. In total something like 600,000 deaths occurred from all causes, over 2% of the U.S. population at the time!

    Let’s skip to the first half of the 20th century for some additional perspective and to bring us up to more modern times. After the civil war there were steady improvements in American medicine in both the understanding and treatment of certain diseases, new surgical techniques and in physician education and training. But for the most part the best that doctors could offer their patients was a “wait and see” approach. Medicine could handle bone fractures and increasingly attempt risky surgeries (now largely performed in sterile surgical environments) but medicines were not yet available to handle serious illnesses. The majority of deaths remained the result of untreatable conditions such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, scarlet fever and measles and/or related complications. Doctors were increasingly aware of heart and vascular conditions, and cancer but they had almost nothing with which to treat these conditions.

    This very basic review of American medical history helps us to understand that until quite recently (around the 1950’s) we had virtually no technologies with which to treat serious or even minor ailments. Here is a critical point we need to understand; “nothing to treat you with means that visits to the doctor if at all were relegated to emergencies so in such a scenario costs are curtailed. The simple fact is that there was little for doctors to offer and therefore virtually nothing to drive health care spending. A second factor holding down costs was that medical treatments that were provided were paid for out-of-pocket, meaning by way of an individuals personal resources. There was no such thing as health insurance and certainly not health insurance paid by an employer. Except for the very destitute who were lucky to find their way into a charity hospital, health care costs were the responsibility of the individual.

    What does health care insurance have to do with health care costs? Its impact on health care costs has been, and remains to this day, absolutely enormous. When health insurance for individuals and families emerged as a means for corporations to escape wage freezes and to attract and retain employees after World War II, almost overnight a great pool of money became available to pay for health care. Money, as a result of the availability of billions of dollars from health insurance pools, encouraged an innovative America to increase medical research efforts. More Americans became insured not only through private, employer sponsored health insurance but through increased government funding that created Medicare and Medicaid (1965). In addition funding became available for expanded veterans health care benefits. Finding a cure for almost anything has consequently become very lucrative. This is also the primary reason for the vast array of treatments we have available today.

    I do not wish to convey that medical innovations are a bad thing. Think of the tens of millions of lives that have been saved, extended, enhanced and made more productive as a result. But with a funding source grown to its current magnitude (hundreds of billions of dollars annually) upward pressure on health care costs are inevitable. Doctor’s offer and most of us demand and get access to the latest available health care technology in the form of pharmaceuticals, medical devices, diagnostic tools and surgical procedures. So the result is that there is more health care to spend our money on and until very recently most of us were insured and the costs were largely covered by a third-party (government, employers). Add an insatiable and unrealistic public demand for access and treatment and we have the “perfect storm” for higher and higher health care costs. And by and large the storm is only intensifying.

    At this point, let’s turn to the key questions that will lead us into a review and hopefully a better understanding of the health care reform proposals in the news today. Is the current trajectory of U.S. health care spending sustainable? Can America maintain its world competitiveness when 16%, heading for 20% of our gross national product is being spent on health care? What are the other industrialized countries spending on health care and is it even close to these numbers? When we add politics and an election year to the debate, information to help us answer these questions become critical. We need to spend some effort in understanding health care and sorting out how we think about it. Properly armed we can more intelligently determine whether certain health care proposals might solve or worsen some of these problems. What can be done about the challenges? How can we as individuals contribute to the solutions?

    The Obama health care plan is complex for sure – I have never seen a health care plan that isn’t. But through a variety of programs his plan attempts to deal with a) increasing the number of American that are covered by adequate insurance (almost 50 million are not), and b) managing costs in such a manner that quality and our access to health care is not adversely affected. Republicans seek to achieve these same basic and broad goals, but their approach is proposed as being more market driven than government driven. Let’s look at what the Obama plan does to accomplish the two objectives above. Remember, by the way, that his plan was passed by congress, and begins to seriously kick-in starting in 2014. So this is the direction we are currently taking as we attempt to reform health care.

    Through insurance exchanges and an expansion of Medicaid,the Obama plan dramatically expands the number of Americans that will be covered by health insurance.

    To cover the cost of this expansion the plan requires everyone to have health insurance with a penalty to be paid if we don’t comply. It will purportedly send money to the states to cover those individuals added to state-based Medicaid programs.

    To cover the added costs there were a number of new taxes introduced, one being a 2.5% tax on new medical technologies and another increases taxes on interest and dividend income for wealthier Americans.

    The Obama plan also uses concepts such as evidence-based medicine, accountable care organizations, comparative effectiveness research and reduced reimbursement to health care providers (doctors and hospitals) to control costs.

    The insurance mandate covered by points 1 and 2 above is a worthy goal and most industrialized countries outside of the U.S. provide “free” (paid for by rather high individual and corporate taxes) health care to most if not all of their citizens. It is important to note, however, that there are a number of restrictions for which many Americans would be culturally unprepared. Here is the primary controversial aspect of the Obama plan, the insurance mandate. The U.S. Supreme Court recently decided to hear arguments as to the constitutionality of the health insurance mandate as a result of a petition by 26 states attorney’s general that congress exceeded its authority under the commerce clause of the U.S. constitution by passing this element of the plan. The problem is that if the Supreme Court should rule against the mandate, it is generally believed that the Obama plan as we know it is doomed. This is because its major goal of providing health insurance to all would be severely limited if not terminated altogether by such a decision.

    As you would guess, the taxes covered by point 3 above are rather unpopular with those entities and individuals that have to pay them. Medical device companies, pharmaceutical companies, hospitals, doctors and insurance companies all had to “give up” something that would either create new revenue or would reduce costs within their spheres of control. As an example, Stryker Corporation, a large medical device company, recently announced at least a 1,000 employee reduction in part to cover these new fees. This is being experienced by other medical device companies and pharmaceutical companies as well. The reduction in good paying jobs in these sectors and in the hospital sector may rise as former cost structures will have to be dealt with in order to accommodate the reduced rate of reimbursement to hospitals. Over the next ten years some estimates put the cost reductions to hospitals and physicians at half a trillion dollars and this will flow directly to and affect the companies that supply hospitals and doctors with the latest medical technologies. None of this is to say that efficiencies will not be realized by these changes or that other jobs will in turn be created but this will represent painful change for a while. It helps us to understand that health care reform does have an effect both positive and negative.

    Finally, the Obama plan seeks to change the way medical decisions are made. While clinical and basic research underpins almost everything done in medicine today, doctors are creatures of habit like the rest of us and their training and day-to-day experiences dictate to a great extent how they go about diagnosing and treating our conditions. Enter the concept of evidence-based medicine and comparative effectiveness research. Both of these seek to develop and utilize data bases from electronic health records and other sources to give better and more timely information and feedback to physicians as to the outcomes and costs of the treatments they are providing. There is great waste in health care today, estimated at perhaps a third of an over 2 trillion dollar health care spend annually. Imagine the savings that are possible from a reduction in unnecessary test and procedures that do not compare favorably with health care interventions that are better documented as effective. Now the Republicans and others don’t generally like these ideas as they tend to characterize them as “big government control” of your and my health care. But to be fair, regardless of their political persuasions, most people who understand health care at all, know that better data for the purposes described above will be crucial to getting health care efficiencies, patient safety and costs headed in the right direction.

    A brief review of how Republicans and more conservative individuals think about health care reform. I believe they would agree that costs must come under control and that more, not fewer Americans should have access to health care regardless of their ability to pay. But the main difference is that these folks see market forces and competition as the way to creating the cost reductions and efficiencies we need. There are a number of ideas with regard to driving more competition among health insurance companies and health care providers (doctors and hospitals) so that the consumer would begin to drive cost down by the choices we make. This works in many sectors of our economy but this formula has shown that improvements are illusive when applied to health care. Primarily the problem is that health care choices are difficult even for those who understand it and are connected. The general population, however, is not so informed and besides we have all been brought up to “go to the doctor” when we feel it is necessary and we also have a cultural heritage that has engendered within most of us the feeling that health care is something that is just there and there really isn’t any reason not to access it for whatever the reason and worse we all feel that there is nothing we can do to affect its costs to insure its availability to those with serious problems.

    OK, this article was not intended to be an exhaustive study as I needed to keep it short in an attempt to hold my audience’s attention and to leave some room for discussing what we can do contribute mightily to solving some of the problems. First we must understand that the dollars available for health care are not limitless. Any changes that are put in place to provide better insurance coverage and access to care will cost more. And somehow we have to find the revenues to pay for these changes. At the same time we have to pay less for medical treatments and procedures and do something to restrict the availability of unproven or poorly documented treatments as we are the highest cost health care system in the world and don’t necessarily have the best results in terms of longevity or avoiding chronic diseases much earlier than necessary.

    I believe that we need a revolutionary change in the way we think about health care, its availability, its costs and who pays for it. And if you think I am about to say we should arbitrarily and drastically reduce spending on health care you would be wrong. Here it is fellow citizens – health care spending needs to be preserved and protected for those who need it. And to free up these dollars those of us who don’t need it or can delay it or avoid it need to act. First, we need to convince our politicians that this country needs sustained public education with regard to the value of preventive health strategies. This should be a top priority and it has worked to reduce the number of U.S. smokers for example. If prevention were to take hold, it is reasonable to assume that those needing health care for the myriad of life style engendered chronic diseases would decrease dramatically. Millions of Americans are experiencing these diseases far earlier than in decades past and much of this is due to poor life style choices. This change alone would free up plenty of money to handle the health care costs of those in dire need of treatment, whether due to an acute emergency or chronic condition.

    Let’s go deeper on the first issue. Most of us refuse do something about implementing basic wellness strategies into our daily lives. We don’t exercise but we offer a lot of excuses. We don’t eat right but we offer a lot of excuses. We smoke and/or we drink alcohol to excess and we offer a lot of excuses as to why we can’t do anything about managing these known to be destructive personal health habits. We don’t take advantage of preventive health check-ups that look at blood pressure, cholesterol readings and body weight but we offer a lot of excuses. In short we neglect these things and the result is that we succumb much earlier than necessary to chronic diseases like heart problems, diabetes and high blood pressure. We wind up accessing doctors for these and more routine matters because “health care is there” and somehow we think we have no responsibility for reducing our demand on it.

    It is difficult for us to listen to these truths but easy to blame the sick. Maybe they should take better care of themselves! Well, that might be true or maybe they have a genetic condition and they have become among the unfortunate through absolutely no fault of their own. But the point is that you and I can implement personalized preventive disease measures as a way of dramatically improving health care access for others while reducing its costs. It is far better to be productive by doing something we can control then shifting the blame.

    There are a huge number of free web sites available that can steer us to a more healthful life style. A soon as you can, “Google” “preventive health care strategies”, look up your local hospital’s web site and you will find more than enough help to get you started. Finally, there is a lot to think about here and I have tried to outline the challenges but also the very powerful effect we could have on preserving the best of America’s health care system now and into the future. I am anxious to hear from you and until then – take charge and increase your chances for good health while making sure that health care is there when we need it.

    Reply
  4. haliluya

    I wanted to create you one very little note to be able to thank you so much the moment again for these exceptional concepts you have shared above. It’s certainly surprisingly open-handed with you giving easily precisely what a number of us would have distributed as an electronic book in order to make some dough for themselves, particularly considering that you could possibly have done it if you considered necessary. These principles additionally acted to become a easy way to comprehend other people have similar fervor just like my personal own to see lots more with regard to this condition. I’m sure there are millions of more pleasant opportunities in the future for folks who discover your blog.

    Reply
  5. haliluya

    My spouse and i ended up being so comfortable when Emmanuel managed to carry out his analysis while using the precious recommendations he acquired in your web pages. It is now and again perplexing just to find yourself giving freely instructions that many many others may have been trying to sell. Therefore we discover we now have the website owner to appreciate for that. These illustrations you have made, the easy web site navigation, the relationships you can give support to engender – it’s got most astonishing, and it is leading our son and the family imagine that the issue is entertaining, which is highly mandatory. Thanks for everything!

    Reply
  6. JessicaSmall

    I have checked your site and i’ve found some duplicate content,
    that’s why you don’t rank high in google, but there is a tool that can help you to create
    100% unique content, search for; Boorfe’s tips unlimited content

    Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *